The storage and preservation of food - HACCP

August 29, 2013 – 02:38

La Cuisine Collective - Collective Kitchen

The storage and food preservation
HACCP | Christian Delagoutte, Veterinary Doctor

The chefs and their suppliers can not work with zero inventory. Therefore, the storage becomes an obligation both as regards raw materials, as to working and finished products waiting to be consumed.

This article does not seek directly conversation conditions but why and how you can keep a food. Whatever barriers or not to prevent or limit (to an acceptable level) the presence of microbial hazards.
The conditions and the shelf life will depend essentially on the ability of germs to develop and therefore degrade the food products.
The men, who have always sought to preserve their food, have evolved strategies to protect. Successively see why scientist and then the practical how good preservation.

The scientific why: the conditions of development of germs:
Several environmental conditions affect microbial growth with varying consequences. Nutritional support is, time, temperature, the presence of water available (or Aw), the presence or absence of oxygen, salt, sugar and acidity or opposite (or pH).
Attention, know that the possible limits microbial growth, and for each specific value of either temperature, Aw, pH ..., we always microorganisms whose populations will differ in quality and quantity. Particular environmental conditions (temperature, oxygen, Aw, pH, ...) certain families of germs favor over others.
We will refer to the main factors involved in the presence of germs in food.

Nutritional support:
Germs can only develop in a nutritional support. Indeed, without food no development is possible, but note, on a stainless steel table certain microbes can survive, sometimes for long periods.

The time:
A snap of fingers microbial population will increase significantly, necessarily will take time. The latter, though imperatively associated development other favorable conditions, is inescapable. It must control this time seeing as dates or FLUO FLC.

Experience shows that the temperature is one of the essential factors of microbial growth.
Survival and growth of a microbial population rest on a chain of chemical reactions whose speed is proportional to the temperature, hence unfavorable consequences for the preservation of products very favorable temperatures (10 ° to 55 ° C). Know that raising the temperature, as temperature is reached unfavorable to the survival of a germ multiplication severely stops, showing a destruction phenomenon.
Conversely, decreasing the temperature, the speed of development decreases and stops at different temperatures according to the family of germs is more or less adapted to withstand the heat or cold. At low temperatures, is observed throughout the bacterial growth arrest at -10 ° C, the arrest of all the multiplications in the case of molds at -12 ° C for yeasts and have to drop to -18 ° C.

Like all living things, microorganisms need water to grow. But this water must be available and not engaged in food molecules, sugar, salt ... This is defined in terms of active water or water Actived = Aw.
Since the dawn of time this principle has been used as a means of preserving food. Dried foods, such as meat, fish ... keep for several weeks allow these products with the sole condition that the environment is kept dry. The salting of meat and fish and the addition of sugar in fruits are part of this principle.
The dehydration of a food selected a number of different populations.


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